Sunday, March 22, 2020

Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Example For Students

Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Mount Vesuvius is a volcano located in southern Italy, near the bay of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Vesuvius rises to a height of 1277 m (4190 ft). Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is probably the most famous volcano on earth, and is one of the most dangerous. Mount Vesuvius is a strato-volcano consisting of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) that was built within a summit caldera (Mount Somma). The Somma-Vesuvius complex has formed over the last 25,000 years by means of a sequence of eruptions of variable explosiveness, ranging from the quiet lava outpourings that characterized much of the latest activity (for example from 1881 to 1899 and from 1926 to 1930) to the explosive Plinian eruptions, including the one that destroyed Pompeii and killed thousands of people in 79 A.D. At least seven Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius (1). Each was preceded by a long period of stillness, which in the case of the 79 A.D. eruption lasted about 700 years. We will write a custom essay on Volcano Mount Vesuvius specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now These eruptions were fed by viscous water-rich phonotitic to tephritic phonolitic magmas that appear to have differentiated in shallow crustal conditions. They are believed to have slowly filled a reservoir where differentiation was driven by compositional convection. A minimum depth of about 3 km was inferred for the top of the magmatic reservoir from mineral equilibria of metamorphic carbonate ejecta (2). Fluid inclusions (CO.sub.2 and H. sub.2O-CO.sub.2) in clinopyroxenes from cumulate and nodules indicate a trapping pressure of 1.0 to 2.5 kbar at about 1200 degreesC, suggesting that these minerals crystallized at depths of 4 to 10 km (3). The differentiated magma fraction was about 30% of the total magma in the reservoir, and a volume of about 2 to 3 km.sup.3 was inferred for the reservoir (4). The magma ascent to the surface occurred through a conduit of possibly 70 to 100 m in diameter (5). A thermal model predicts that such a reservoir should contain a core of partially molten magma (6) that can be detected by high-resolution seismic tomography. The earliest outcropping volcanic deposits date back to about 25,000 years ago. The lavas observed at a -1125 m bore-hole are about 0,3-0,5 million years old. It is known for the first eruption of which an eyewitness account is preserved, in 79 AD. Geologically, Vesuvio is unique for its unusual versatility. Its activity ranging from Hawaiian-style release of liquid lava, fountaining and lava lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian activity to violently explosive, plinian events that produce pyroclastic flows and surges. Vesuvius is a complex volcano. A complex volcano is an extensive assemblage of spatially, temporally, and genetically related major and minor volcanic centers with there associated lava flows and pyroclastic flows. Vesuvius has a long history. The oldest dated rock from the volcano is about 300,000 years old. It was collected from a well drilled near the volcano and was probably part of the Somma volcano. After Somma collapsed about 17,000 years ago, Vesuvius began to form. Four types of eruption have been documented: a) Plinian (AD 79, Pompeii type) events with widespread air fall and major pyroclastic surges and flows; b) sub-Plinian to Plinian, more moderately sized eruptions (AD 472, 1631) with heavy tephra falls around the volcano and pyroclastic flows and surges; c) small to medium-sized, Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions (numerous events during the 1631-1944 cycle, such as 1906 and 1944) with local heavy tephra falls and major lava flows and small pyroclastic avalanches restricted to the active cone itself. The fourth type it is the smallest of all eruption types observed at Vesuvio. It is the persistent Strombolian to Hawaiian style eruption that characterizes almost all of an eruptive sub-cycle, such as was the case during the period 1913-1944. Activity of this kind is mainly restricted to the central crater where one or more intracrateral cones form, and to the sides of the cone. Lava flows from the summit crater or from the sub terminal vents extend beyond the cones base. A somewhat particular kind of persistent activity is the slow release of large amounts of lava from sub terminal fractures to form thick piles of lava with little . Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Example For Students Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Word Count: 3757 Mount Vesuvius is a volcano located in southern Italy, near the bay of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Vesuvius rises to a height of 1277 m (4190 ft). Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is probably the most famous volcano on earth, and is one of the most dangerous. Mount Vesuvius is a strato-volcano consisting of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) that was built within a summit caldera (Mount Somma). We will write a custom essay on Volcano Mount Vesuvius specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The Somma-Vesuvius complex has formed over the last 25,000 years by means of a sequence of eruptions of variable explosiveness, ranging from the quiet lava outpourings that characterized much of the latest activity (for example from 1881 to 1899 and from 1926 to 1930) to the explosive Plinian eruptions, including the one that destroyed Pompeii and killed thousands of people in 79 A.D. At least seven Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius (1). Each was preceded by a long period of stillness, which in the case of the 79 A.D. eruption lasted about 700 years. These eruptions were fed by viscous water-rich phonotitic to tephritic phonolitic magmas that appear to have differentiated in shallow crustal conditions. They are believed to have slowly filled a reservoir where differentiation was driven by compositional convection. A minimum depth of about 3 km was inferred for the top of the magmatic reservoir from mineral equilibria of metamorphic carbonate ejecta (2). Fluid inclusions (CO.sub.2 and H. sub.2O-CO.sub.2) in clinopyroxenes from cumulate and nodules indicate a trapping pressure of 1.0 to 2.5 kbar at about 1200 degreesC, suggesting that these minerals crystallized at depths of 4 to 10 km (3). The differentiated magma fraction was about 30% of the total magma in the reservoir, and a volume of about 2 to 3 km.sup.3 was inferred for the reservoir (4). The magma ascent to the surface occurred through a conduit of possibly 70 to 100 m in diameter (5). A thermal model predicts that such a reservoir should contain a core of partially molten magma (6) that can be detected by high-resolution seismic tomography. The earliest outcropping volcanic deposits date back to about 25,000 years ago. The lavas observed at a -1125 m bore-hole are about 0,3-0,5 million years old. It is known for the first eruption of which an eyewitness account is preserved, in 79 AD. Geologically, Vesuvio is unique for its unusual versatility. Its activity ranging from Hawaiian-style release of liquid lava, fountaining and lava lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian activity to violently explosive, plinian events that produce pyroclastic flows and surges. Vesuvius is a complex volcano. A complex volcano is an extensive assemblage of spatially, temporally, and genetically related major and minor volcanic centers with there associated lava flows and pyroclastic flows. Vesuvius has a long history. The oldest dated rock from the volcano is about 300,000 years old. It was collected from a well drilled near the volcano and was probably part of the Somma volcano. After Somma collapsed about 17,000 years ago, Vesuvius began to form. Four types of eruption have been documented: a) Plinian (AD 79, Pompeii type) events with widespread air fall and major pyroclastic surges and flows; b) sub-Plinian to Plinian, more moderately sized eruptions (AD 472, 1631) with heavy tephra falls around the volcano and pyroclastic flows and surges; c) small to medium-sized, Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions (numerous events during the 1631-1944 cycle, such as 1906 and 1944) with local heavy tephra falls and major lava flows and small pyroclastic avalanches restricted to the active cone itself. The fourth type it is the smallest of all eruption types observed at Vesuvio. .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .postImageUrl , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:hover , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:visited , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:active { border:0!important; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:active , .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3 .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud00dfb10897d67247d605f46d13a4ef3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Malcolm X Essay Paper It is the persistent Strombolian to Hawaiian style eruption that characterizes almost all of an eruptive sub-cycle, such as was the case during the period 1913-1944. Activity of this kind is mainly restricted to the central crater where one or more intracrateral cones form, and to the sides of the cone. Lava flows from the summit crater or from the sub terminal vents extend beyond the cones base. A somewhat particular kind of persistent activity is the slow release of large amounts of lava from sub terminal fractures to form thick piles of lava with little . Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Example For Students Volcano Mount Vesuvius Essay Mount Vesuvius is a volcano located in southern Italy, near the bay of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Vesuvius rises to a height of 1277 m (4190 ft). Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is probably the most famous volcano on earth, and is one of the most dangerous. Mount Vesuvius is a strato-volcano consisting of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) that was built within a summit caldera (Mount Somma). We will write a custom essay on Volcano Mount Vesuvius specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The Somma-Vesuvius complex has formed over the last 25,000 years by means of a sequence of eruptions of variable explosiveness, ranging from the quiet lava outpourings that characterized much of the latest activity (for example from 1881 to 1899 and from 1926 to 1930) to the explosive Plinian eruptions, including the one that destroyed Pompeii and killed thousands of people in 79 A.D. At least seven Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius (1). Each was preceded by a long period of stillness, which in the case of the 79 A.D. eruption lasted about 700 years. These eruptions were fed by viscous water-rich phonotitic to tephritic phonolitic magmas that appear to have differentiated in shallow crustal conditions. They are believed to have slowly filled a reservoir where differentiation was driven by compositional convection. A minimum depth of about 3 km was inferred for the top of the magmatic reservoir from mineral equilibria of metamorphic carbonate ejecta (2). Fluid inclusions (CO.sub.2 and H. sub.2O-CO.sub.2) in clinopyroxenes from cumulate and nodules indicate a trapping pressure of 1.0 to 2.5 kbar at about 1200 degreesC, suggesting that these minerals crystallized at depths of 4 to 10 km (3). The differentiated magma fraction was about 30% of the total magma in the reservoir, and a volume of about 2 to 3 km.sup.3 was inferred for the reservoir (4). The magma ascent to the surface occurred through a conduit of possibly 70 to 100 m in diameter (5). A thermal model predicts that such a reservoir should contain a core of partially molten magma (6) that can be detected by high-resolution seismic tomography. The earliest outcropping volcanic deposits date back to about 25,000 years ago. The lavas observed at a -1125 m bore-hole are about 0,3-0,5 million years old. It is known for the first eruption of which an eyewitness account is preserved, in 79 AD. Geologically, Vesuvio is unique for its unusual versatility. Its activity ranging from Hawaiian-style release of liquid lava, fountaining and lava lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian activity to violently explosive, plinian events that produce pyroclastic flows and surges. Vesuvius is a complex volcano. A complex volcano is an extensive assemblage of spatially, temporally, and genetically related major and minor volcanic centers with there associated lava flows and pyroclastic flows. Vesuvius has a long history. The oldest dated rock from the volcano is about 300,000 years old. It was collected from a well drilled near the volcano and was probably part of the Somma volcano. After Somma collapsed about 17,000 years ago, Vesuvius began to form. Four types of eruption have been documented: a) Plinian (AD 79, Pompeii type) events with widespread air fall and major pyroclastic surges and flows; b) sub-Plinian to Plinian, more moderately sized eruptions (AD 472, 1631) with heavy tephra falls around the volcano and pyroclastic flows and surges; c) small to medium-sized, Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions (numerous events during the 1631-1944 cycle, such as 1906 and 1944) with local heavy tephra falls and major lava flows and small pyroclastic avalanches restricted to the active cone itself. The fourth type it is the smallest of all eruption types observed at Vesuvio. It is the persistent .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .postImageUrl , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:hover , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:visited , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:active { border:0!important; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:active , .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u45d992135e94975dcc7c06edc1c01aed:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Go tell it on the mountain EssayStrombolian to Hawaiian style eruption that characterizes almost all of an eruptive sub-cycle, such as was the case during the period 1913-1944. Activity of this kind is mainly restricted to the central crater where one or more intracrateral cones form, and to the sides of the cone. Lava flows from the summit crater or from the sub terminal vents extend beyond the cones base. A somewhat particular kind of persistent activity is the slow release of large amounts of lava from sub terminal fractures to form thick piles of lava with little lateral extension, such as the lava cupola of Colle Umberto, formed in 1895-1899. (7) Vesuvius lies over a subduction zone. The two plates are the African plate and the Eurasian plate. The African plate is moving northward at about one inch (2-3 cm) per year and is slowly closing the Mediterranean basin. As it moves to the north, the .

Thursday, March 5, 2020

To Welcome With Open Arms essays

To Welcome With Open Arms essays Many Americans have skewed notions about immigration, and those perceptions influence decision in Washington and presidential candidates on the campaign trail. Some people think immigration is out of control; a few suggest that it should be stopped altogether. The problem is that many people have illegal immigration and legal immigration mixed up. They think that because the first is a problem, the second must be a problem, too. But that is not the case. Legal immigration provides tangible benefits for our society. And besides, it's actually declining in the United States, and has been for the last four years. So the idea that legal immigration is out of control is just plain wrong. The 720,000 legal immigrants admitted to the United States in 1995 represented a 10 percent decrease since1994 and a 20 percent drop from 1993, according to a new Immigration and Naturalization Service report. This nationwide decline is the greatest drop in immigration since World War II. 1. Barnard, N. P. (1995). The Reality of Animal Experimentation. Washington: Dryger Publishing. 2. Kaufman, S. R. (1995) Animal Experimentation. New York. Drake Press. 3. Hoeffer, T. 4. Tinner, J.(1999, June) Animal Testing and Experimentation[Online] 5. Lepner, J. (1998, July) The Dark Side[Online] Available: AnimalRights.com ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Ethnicity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethnicity - Essay Example These problems when studied under scientific observation can help in countering the problem. The ethnic groups are so diverse and widely distributed; this diversity leads to various ethnic conflicts and problems. Today, Ethnic conflict is recognized as one of the major social conflicts internationally. In order to address the problem properly and dig out its solution there is a need of clear understanding of theories and concepts that can solve the conflict. This paper observes the contemporary conceptual and theoretical debates that are related to the ethnic clash. It shows some advantages and disadvantages of the disputes that have prevailed in the recent times in the ethnic conflict analysis. Social sciences scholars view the concept in different ways; some of them consider it an entity that is objective and has its own characteristic boundaries, while other social science scholars view it from subjective aspect vulnerable to change. (Hussein) Viewed from the objective perspective, ethnic group is a category of the population of humans that shares some attributes as common. These attributes can be in common in the form of language, culture, origin etc. this common entity also proves as distinguished characteristic based on one common entity. Subjective perspective sees these groups as a flexible and changing phenomenon which can be doomed to the alteration through the interaction of an ethnic group. The prevailing circumstances determine the information and symbol of an ethnic group which is socially constructed as fluid identity. Another issue that makes the understanding of the concept difficult is the issue of having different derivatives for the same meaning. The world race, ethnicity and culture and their various derivatives are very familiar. People tend to confuse these terms with each other. In the absence of appropriate analytical vocabulary it is not able to

Monday, February 3, 2020

Nursing Care Plan of Skin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Nursing Care Plan of Skin - Essay Example Benito was asked how long he has had the growth on his back. He responded by indicating that the swelling had been there for a period of about six months. The next assessment involved asking Mr. Benito some few questions to help in carrying out the characteristic assessment. The patient was asked if the growth had been bothering him in any way to which he responded that it did not. However it as noticed that the growth was releasing some kind of fluid. The patient further stated that the mole was dark in colour and oddly shaped. There was also an assessment of aggravating factors but none was found. The next course of action in the procedure was to carry out background check on the patient. This is normally done to find out the patients lifestyle or any other complication that he might have had so that this could be taken in to consideration when deciding on the treatment to be given to the patient. It was found out that the patient was a competitive athlete who spends a lot of hours of the day training. He also indicated that he does not wear any kind of skin protection because he believed that his dark skin cannot be hugely affected by the rays of the sun. In addition, he said that he usually goes to Hawaii for windsurfing and to relax in the each. After the above discussed assessments that were done, the next one was now the skin assessment test which involved physical examination of the growth that was on the patients back. The A B C D E method was used to check and examine the growth on Benito’s back. The A in the above method stands for asymmetry. This is used to check if half of a mole does not match the other half. It was found that the mole was irregular in shape. The B stands for Borders and it involves examining the borders of the mole with the finding being that it did not have any regular edge, but rather it had several notch areas. The C stands for Changes in colour. For the case of Melanoma, which Benito

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Use Of Computers In Education Education Essay

Use Of Computers In Education Education Essay Exploring the digital divide amongst schools requires not only requires examining the access the students have to technology but also the equality in the educational experiences the students have with the technology. The usage of technology in a school plays an important role. It is said to be one of the factors that cause a digital divide amongst schools. Reasons are as followed; putting computers in the classroom does not automatically decrease the divide. The outcome of investing in computers should be for the benefit of the students. Students must be able to manipulate their skills on the technology thus improving the learning process. Doing so would mean analyzing how the students are making use of the computer technology provided to them. From survey B done on the local and international schools students, we find that 47% of the sampled local students do not use the computers at school. This is a common case as we find from prior results that students are more acquainted with their computers at home. Although this then leads to a socioeconomic problem. As students from different socioeconomic groups have varying access to computers and the Internet. Therefore this has an effect on the equity of computer access. However survey B shows that 57% of local students didnt have access to computers at home. Those who did have access, 77% of them did not use it. This leads to a major problem as most students are unlikely to be using a computer at all. It is almost impossible to enjoy the benefits of ICTs without the use of ICT in education and indeed ICT education itself to improve skills. Computers have brought about a revolution across all industries. They have changed the face of society. What was once known as a technology that required specially trained people has now become a daily utility. Computers have gained immense importance in day-to-day life. Their increasing utility has made computer education the need of the day. (Oak) The ICT skills of students in the local school were poor. From the survey we see that on average 45% of students did not have the required skills to use simple tool-based applications (such as word processors) Where as students from international school all of them had some sort of idea about each of the simple tool-based applications. Various technologies deliver different kinds of content and serve different purposes in the classroom. For example, word processing and e-mail promote communication skills; database and spreadsheet programs promote organizational skills; and modelling software promotes the understanding of science and math concepts. Therefore it is important to consider how these electronic technologies differ and what characteristics make them important as vehicles for education (Becker, 1994). Computers being implemented in education has made it not only easier for the teachers to render knowledge but also for students to grasp it much quicker. Computer technology allows a fun-element to education and it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity. The computer offers several advantages to a students life, ranging from interactive audio-visual media to PowerPoint presentations to animation software. Each can be used to render information to students in an interactive and much more appealing manner. The visual effects provided by the animation and presentation software result in greater awareness of the students dues to greater interest rates. Furthermore, these applications serve as visual aids to the teachers. Overhead projectors and screens facilitate a simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. These audio-visual teaching aids have brought about marked improvements in student attendance and attentiveness. Intera ctive media have proven to be useful in enhancing the concentration levels of students. Therefore we can conclude that this underlines the importance of computer teaching against textbooks. (Oak) Computers skills are more important than ever, required for nearly half of all jobs now compared to less than a third in 1997. A technology savvy youth is playing an increasing influential role in employment and with a countries development. Education is crucial for students to be prepared to meet global needs so that well paying jobs are not outsourced. Lack of Education and employment slows down progress within a country (Koss, 2001). The most severe consequences of the digital divide are the long term effects that it can have on students that do not have access to education. Lacking access and computer skills would mean that a whole generation will miss out on realizing their full potential in an information and communication technology world (Koss, 2001). Therefore it is virtually impossible to ignore the need for technology in an education curriculum (Di Bello, 2005). Studies have also shown that school students who are competent computer users tend to perform better in their other key school subjects than those with limited experience and confidence to perform basic computer necessities. According to OECD studies it has been found thata tech-savy youth could perform strikingly better due to the relationship that they hold with computers. In short students with limited access to computers or only recent access to computers are at a higher risk of performing poorly at curriculum level. Internet use The internet has more or less become a fundamental medium of communication and information processing, permeating every domain of economy and society. The more it becomes the key medium for business, education, for social services, for personal development, and for social interaction, the more the capacity to use it becomes dependant on peoples educational level. In other words the real inequality starts when we are all dependent on the internet. The more we move into an internet society, the more education becomes the foundation for equal opportunity. Therefore in addition to the computer use, the level of internet use was examined as well. The results also show that 64% of students did not have internet access as compared to all the students who had access from the international school. Information and Communication Technology is playing an increasingly influential role in reshaping employment in large parts of the world. Information and Communication Technologies presents unprecedented opportunities to combat poverty by increasing income, opening markets and providing employment opportunities. Knowledge based economies have an advantage in todays global market. Countries with extensive knowledge assets are able to open employment opportunities which create rapid technological progress that benefits in economic growth and rising living standards. A trend has formed with employees wanting workers with certified skills and educational levels to fill positions. Students in higher education are dealing with more than a digital divide, it has now become a degree divide. Students that are prevented from getting bachelor degrees are at a disadvantage in gaining employment (Garmon, 2003).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Human Kind and Extraterrestrial Life Essay

For centuries ever since man has first looked up at the night sky and wondered what other things existed beyond Earth he has continued to explore the heavens in search for answers. Over a few hundred years the quest for truth has yield substantial amounts of data. It is true that ancient astronomers did nothing more than just attribute mythical and religious meaning to different celestial phenomena. Stars have been given their respective names—a group of them are even linked to gods and mythical figures as constellations, and were used as a timetable for various human activities like navigation and agriculture. However, the improvements in modern astronomy have changed the rules of the game from mere nomenclature to a more profound exploration of space and the myriad possibilities that it brings. The quest for knowing other life outside the planet has never been more exciting and providential as it had been before. Slowly we are beginning to realize that the chances that there are advanced life-forms out there waiting to be discovered are significantly high to support the claim that we are not alone. To say that the entire universe is a big place is to make the biggest scientific understatement. Science has revealed that the universe is so big that there are no mathematical figures to approximate its size. In order to define the known borders of space there is a need to express terms in a special unit called a Light: Or the distance that light travels in one year. Recently, the Hubble Space telescope has pegged the perimeter and edges of the universe to a width of millions and millions of light years (O’Brien, â€Å"Long Live Hubble†). Such distance alone beggars description. Within that given space, there are billions of individual galaxies each with roughly 400 million stars in the system on average. There could be less but there could also be a dozen times more. At any rate, there are an estimated millions of stars with planetary systems like our own. Roughly a fraction of a percent of that number may have planets that host organic elements of life both simple and complex. Some of the complex life-forms may evolve into intelligent life capable of developing competent scientific knowledge and even perhaps communicate with their neighbors using advanced radio technology just like we had been doing at the turn of the last century. Planet Earth appears to be the only planet in the Solar System viable for life. Most planets have noxious environments and harsh atmospheres. Our closest planetary neighbors, Mars and Venus, are either too cold or too hot (Sagan, â€Å"Heaven and Hell†, 76-79). The primordial soup which made life on Earth possible will freeze or dry up anywhere else in the Solar System. Indeed, religion waxes poetic that our world is an astounding and thought-provoking miracle of life. However, evolutionary scientists would say that we are just fortunate that the environment, at one point of our planet’s history, has been conducive to the formation of life and the same has not been interrupted by any outside cause (Dawkins 19). Some planets in other stars may theoretically be as lucky to be able to give rise to life, and theoretically intelligent beings too (21). But just like Mars, Venus and other planets in the Solar System, the chances of life are rare. Even with Earth alone, the statistics reflect how fragile the occurrence of life began millions of years ago. Unless there are kinds of biological species that can withstand even extreme environments and thus would continue to develop despite harsh conditions, then Earth life might just all there is in the universe. Thanks to recent discoveries, however, scientists are inclined to believe that a certain kind of bacterium can live in the highest or lowest temperatures, impervious to both heat and cold, makes it possible that life may still develop or artificially introduced in Mars and Venus or elsewhere regardless of hostile environments (Sagan 9). If that is the case, the chances of life may be higher than previously expected. While scientists are busy in attempting to find life out there, the rest of the world is perpetually fascinated with the idea of the existence of extraterrestrial life. Science fiction and Hollywood movies are in the forefront of providing us with hypothetical images and scenarios of aliens visiting our planet. Alien invasion is one of the most titillating themes that fire up our imagination. H. G. Wells’ War of the Worlds and Steven Spielberg’s Independence Day bespeak both our universal desire to feel that we are not alone and the irrational fear that beings more intelligent than us would destroy the planet. The realm of the unknown viz. extraterrestrial life has never been simultaneously awe-inspiring and scary. In addition, fiction writers and film-makers present extraterrestrial beings as creatures that appear, behave and live entirely different from humans. Similarly, if we are to accept the premise that conditions for life in other planets were vastly peculiar, then it is fair to expect that the aliens would probably have tentacles, communicate through ESP, possess superhuman powers, spit venomous saliva, eat through metal or have human like bodies but with pasty white skin and large, black oval eyes. Although they seem to be portrayed differently, the literature on aliens share the common feature that they are antagonistic creatures out to invade and kill all humans Scientists theorize that if other life-forms were capable of making interstellar travel they must have evolved as a species and as a civilization to eschew violence. Otherwise, if such aliens were warmongers as movies and science fiction stories would suggest, then they would have obliterated themselves way before they have developed complex means of space travel. In fact, alien tourists, if there have been some, would have more reasons to fear us than we would have to fear them. Carl Sagan writes that it is more likely â€Å"that the mere fact that they have survived for so long is because they have learned to live with themselves and others† (258). Similarly, he adds that perhaps our fears reflect our own backward thinking as a civilization, â€Å"an expression of our guilty conscience about our past history: The ravages against civilizations only slightly backward than we† (259). In other words, the conquests done by Western civilization against their contemporaries time and again are so imbedded in our history that we expect advanced life-forms to have the same colonizing tendencies. The fascination for extraterrestrial life grows with such gusto that several years after alien hype has reached feverish pitch, numerous sights Unidentified Flying Objects all over the world have been reported. Likewise, people claim to have been abducted and subjected to strange experiments by our curious alien visitors. The encounters are few and far between but each of them fuels our imagination. Thus far, none of the sightings have been confirmed to be true although we desperately believe that one or two are real (Cook, â€Å"UFO’s: the Secret Evidence†). As several critics of alleged alien encounters rightly observes, the relation between alien encounters and weird and wacky people who report them only proves the fact that these reports are a hoax. Meanwhile, humanity has yet to mature as a civilization before we even begin to welcome other intelligent species. Accordingly, science fiction writers posit the theory of the Fermi paradox stating the reason why aliens have not paid us a visit is because they, â€Å"the advanced alien community has cordoned off the earth in a galactic nursery, until the time that we have reached an adequate stage, ready for contact† (Tee, â€Å"Extraterrestrial Life†). Yet scientists and writers remain optimistic about the existence of intelligent life-form. The famous Drake equation translates the possibility of extraterrestrial life into a mathematical formula where N is the number of advanced civilizations in our Milky Way galaxy. It is the product of values assigned with respect to the number of stars in the galaxy, the fraction of which that have planetary systems, a percent of which are suitable for substantial biological formation, the probability that life arises, the variable pertaining to its evolution, intelligence and further multiplied to the reasonable time that intelligent life is able to survive taking into account the possibility of self-eradication due to wars, environmental changes and the like (Ford, â€Å"What is the Drake Equation? †). The value of N could be any number more than one what with the number of stars and galaxies in the universe. Even if the estimate hovers on an insignificant value of 1 or 3, the prospect, that one or more planetary systems have intelligent life and such have survived and evolved into complex societies, is truly astonishing. The statistical computation of the probability that Extraterrestrial beings exist leaves little to the imagination. Scientists are convinced that life exists in other planets that they have established extravagant methods of getting in touch with them. One of the most ambitious projects of making contact to outer beings to date is the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program. The name of the project sums up what it sets out to do—to search the heavens for signs of intelligent life. It sends radio signals and broadcasts them to specified points in space, such as candidate stars and planets. 50 years of sending the messages, a reply has yet to be received. Of course, this does not disprove the claim of alien life, what with the distance that the radio signals have to travel to and fro the recipient, but rather, this only inspires other scientists to develop quicker and more effective means of communication (Shostak, â€Å"Finding Them, Finding Us†). In addition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been continuously sending golden discs into outer-space, ever since it sent the first men into the moon, containing details about human civilization and how far it has progressed (Sagan 264-265). To this day, the discs hurl into the infinite void with the hope of one day crash-landing into a planet with beings capable of deciphering the code. We have long been fixated on our earthly problems and conflicts, and took pride with all our achievements, but the moment that contact is made, the event would change how we look at ourselves and how we appreciate our place in the universal magnitude of things. If before we could not care much about how badly we treat our close neighbors in the planet, we might fare better as an intelligent species by the mere thought that we are not alone. As such, we have to find ways to learn how to live peacefully and progress scientifically if only to survive long enough to meet our interstellar neighbors. Nevertheless, the question whether or not there is extraterrestrial life remains to be answered conclusively, whether we are alone or not: Either conclusion is mind-boggling. Works Cited Cook, Nick. UFO’s: The Secret Evidence. 18 Mar. 2006. BBC Online Documentaries. 1 May 2008 . Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. London: Oxford University Press, 1990. Ford, Steve. â€Å"What is the Drake Equation? † Aug. 1995. The SETI League. 1 May 2008 < http://www. setileague. org/general/drake. htm>. O’Brien, Miles. â€Å"Long Live Hubble†. 31 Oct. 2006. CNN International. 1 May 2008 < http://edition. cnn. com/2006/TECH/space/10/31/hubble. obrien/index. html>. Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Ballantine Books, 1980. Shostak, Seth. â€Å"Finding Them, Finding Us†. 28 Feb. 2008. SETI Institute. 1 May 2008 . Tee, Brian. â€Å"Extraterrestrial Life†. The Ten Big Questions. 1 May 2008 < http://www. 123infinity. com/extraterrestrial_life. html>.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Earl Jones †Scams and Fraud Essay

Earl Jones was born in Montreal on June 24, 1963. He started to work at Montreal TRUST for over 16 years; he worked 8-10 different positions including investment management, estates, trust administration, will planning and manager of the mortgage department. In 1970 Jones left the company to start his own business, he began holding courses on taking care of finances. He then launched a company he called â€Å"Earl Jones Consultant and Administration Corporation, an administrative and financial advising† (Gazette, 2010). He began to make withdrawals from his bank account, into which he deposited his client’s money. Earl Jones is a â€Å"White Collar Criminal† which is â€Å"members of the rich and powerful who used their positions for personal gain ignoring the law and the consequences for others. He surmised that white-collar criminals damaged the social relations between citizens and their government, clients and professionals and consumers and corporationsâ₠¬  (Sutherland, 1940). Earl Jones grew up in a family whom barley made it by with money, this contributed to his personality later in life. Earl Jones felt the need to fulfill his desires of better schools for their children, keeping up the appearance of greater wealth than he was able to afford as a status symbol (Sutherland, 1940). Earl Jones scheme works by simply paying old investors the funds collected with new investors. The fraud can only continue just as long as there was a continued flow of new investors. Jones had made a promise to his clients that they will achieve an above normal rate of return. (Moffatt, 2012). In 2005 Jones set up nine mortgages valued nearly two million dollars; he convinced many of his clients to re-mortgage their homes. In 2008 he switched to, a commercial account, he still continued to print ‘in trust’ on cheques he was using with clients. Earl Jones had claimed to be a financial advisor. All the payments he had made showed as an administrative expensive. Jones convinced clients that he would invest their funds to generate high returns with little or no risk. Earl Jones seemed like a very friendly and trustworthy guy. Investors considered him to be a part of the family, most calling him â€Å"Uncle Jones†. Jones targeted his family and his immediate circle of friends, then he started to convince widows with a paid off house to take out a new mortgage so he could invest the loan and get a higher return (Maclellan, 2009). Many people have been hurt in Earl Jones scheme; obviously the initial victims lost their money and were very angry. His family lost the most in this scheme. His wife and daughters experienced many emotions from anger to losing all hope to depression and disappointment. His family knew him as a loving husband, devoted father, and a respected member of the community. When his wife and daughters had figured out what he was really about, they stated him â€Å"as a man we can scarcely believe exists† (CBCNEWS, 2009). Jones had left his family with zero financial means to face the future; his family now needs to become members of local charities, to have basic needs such as food and medication, they also need to worry about finding places to sleep. Earl Jones was sentenced to eleven years in prison. He has pleaded guilty to scamming 158 clients of $50 million dollars in the scheme he had operated for over more than two decades. The punishment does not fit his crime, he had ruined several people’s lives, not only robbing them of their money, but he took their freedom and self-esteem (The Gazette, 2010). In comparison to the punishment given to American Ponzi scheme Bernard Madoff who was sentenced 150 years in jail which is the maximum sentence allowed, Bernard pleaded guilty of 11 felony counts including security fraud, money laundering and perjury. Bernard has scammed clients of $65 billion dollars (New York Times, 2013). Jones sentence does not seem appropriate seeing as he has stolen $50 million dollars from his clients and would have continued this scheme if he was not caught. According to ‘Theories and History of enterprise/white collar crimes’ the theory â€Å"Rational Choice – Need† is appropriate for Earl Jones conduct because â€Å"some individuals are driven by psychological or financial needs to commit crime. Executives may feel the need to keep up the appearance of greater wealth than they are able to afford as a status symbol, or to stroke their egos. Blue collar workers may feel the need to take things to augment their incomes to keep pace with inflation† (Sutherland, 1940). Earl Jones grew up in a family that could barely get by, making him become a needy person in the future, always wanting more. Earl Jones had stolen millions of dollars from his loved ones and his close friends, this proves that he would do anything for money and always wanted to be looked at as a rich person whom always kept up his appearance and style. References The Gazette. (2010). Earl Jones Scandal. Retrieved from: http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/earl-jones/index.html Sutherland, E. (1940). White Collar Criminality. Handout presented at SOCS10261G, Sheridan College, Oakville. Moffatt, M. (2012). Ponzi Scheme. Retrieved from: http://economics.about.com/od/financialmarkets/f/ponzi_scheme.htm Macelellan, N. (2009). Earl Jones – A Canadian Ponzi. Retrieved from: http://beforeyouinvest.ca/2009/07/earl-jones-canadian-ponzi/ CBCNEWS. (2009) Ponzi Scheme Suspects Family express ‘Grief, Shame’. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/story/2009/07/20/earl-jones-family-statement.html The New York Times. (2013). Bernard L. Madoff. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/bernard_l_madoff/index.html